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DMN Method and Style – Table of Contents

//DMN Method and Style – Table of Contents
DMN Method and Style – Table of Contents 2016-12-29T13:39:58-08:00

Preface. ix

  • Following the Path of BPMN.. x
  • Make Way for DMN.. xi
  • Why I Wrote This Book. xii
  • What Makes a Decision Model “Good”?. xiv
  • Objectives. xvi
  • Organization of the Book. xvi
  • Acknowledgments. xviii
  • A Final Word. xix

Part I: Business Decision Management…… 1

1.    What Is Business Decision Management?. 3

  • Decisions Drive Business. 4
  • The Business Value of Model-Based BDM… 5
  • BDM, Big Data, and Predictive Analytics. 7
  • BDM and BPM… 8
  • BDM, Event Processing, and Internet of Things. 10

Part II: The DMN Standard…13

2.    What Is DMN?. 15

What Is a Decision?. 15
  • Decision Tables. 15
  • No ORs or Parentheses. 17
  • Logic Transparency. 17
Origins of the Standard. 18
DMN Overview.. 20
  1. Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) 20
  2. Decision Table. 21
  3. FEEL. 22
  4. Boxed Expression. 22
  5. Metamodel and Schema. 23
What’s Not in the Standard. 24
Relating DRD to Decision Tables and BPMN.. 25
Declarative Decision Logic. 26
A Hierarchy of Decisions. 28
  • The Value of Hierarchical Decision Structure. 28
DRD and the Business Decision as a Whole. 29
  • What Is the Business Decision as a Whole?. 30
End-to-End Decision Logic and the DMN Method. 33
  • BPMN Describes Decision Implementation. 36
  • Does DRD Prescribe an Order of Execution?. 36
Three Meanings of “Decision”. 38
Value Expressions. 38
DMN Conformance Levels. 39

3.    Decision Requirements. 41

  • Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) 41
  • Decision Services. 47
  • Business Knowledge Models. 48
  • Business Context and Motivation. 49

4.    Decision Logic  at Conformance Levels 1 and 2. 51

The Big Picture. 52
  • Variables. 53
  • Datatypes. 53
S-FEEL. 54
  • Names. 55
  • Literals. 56
  • Ranges. 57
  • Expressions. 57
Literal Expressions. 58
Decision Tables. 59
  • Variable Name and Output Label 60
  • Input Expression. 60
  • Input and Output Values. 61
  • Input Entry. 62
  • Output Entry. 64
  • Decision Rules. 64
  • Compound Output 64
  • Hit Policy. 65
  • Completeness Indicator 66
  • Table Orientation. 67
Business Knowledge Models. 68

5.    Decision Logic at Conformance Level 3. 71

  • Boxed Expressions. 71
  • Context. 72
  • Function Definitions. 73
  • Lists. 74
  • Relations. 75
FEEL
  • What Is FEEL?. 76
  • FEEL Names. 77
  • Datatypes. 78
  • Ternary Logic. 78
  • Path Expressions. 79
  • Built-In Functions. 79
  • FEEL Operators. 83
Imports. 85
  • DMN Import 86
  • XSD Import 86
  • XML Import 87
Example: Collections of Cars Challenge. 88

6.    Lending Example Walkthrough. 91

Overall Decision Flow.. 91
The Strategy Decision. 93
  • Bureau Call Type. 95
  • Pre-bureau Risk category. 96
  • Eligibility. 97
  • Application Risk Score. 98
  • Pre-Bureau Affordability. 98
  • Required Monthly Installment 101
The Routing Decision. 103
  • Post-Bureau Affordability. 105
  • Post-Bureau Risk Category. 105
The Adjudication Decision. 106

7.    Metamodel and Schema. 109

Element References. 110
DMNElement and NamedElement. 110
definitions. 111
  • namespace. 112
  • expressionLanguage and typeLanguage. 113
  • exporter and exporterVersion. 113
import. 113
itemDefinition. 114
decision. 115
  • question and allowedAnswers. 116
  • variable and typeRef 116
  • expression. 118
  • informationRequirement 118
  • knowledgeRequirement 119
  • authorityRequirement 119
  • Other Info. 119
inputData. 120
businessKnowledgeModel. 120
decisionService. 122
expression. 122
  • literalExpression. 123
  • invocation. 124
  • decisionTable. 126
  • context 130
  • list and relation. 131

Part III: Method and Style………………………. 135

8.    What Makes a Good Decision Table?. 137

Vanthienen. 137
  • Sixteen Commandments. 137
  • Clear and Consistent 139
Ross. 141
  • Layout 142
  • Scope, Restrictions, Exceptions, and Defaults. 143
  • Structured Business Vocabulary. 144
  • Procedural Dependencies. 145
  • Anomalies. 146
The Decision Model (von Halle and Goldberg) 147
  • TDM Notation. 148
  • TDM Style. 149
Normalization. 152
  • First Normal Form.. 152
  • Second Normal Form.. 153
  • Third Normal Form.. 153
Recommendations Compared. 154
  • Condition Heading. 155
  • Conclusion Heading. 155
  • Orientation. 155
  • Scope, Restrictions, and Table Completeness. 155
  • Hit Policy. 156
  • Maximum Contraction. 156
  • Table Cells Optimized for Visual Scanning. 156
  • Standardized Business Vocabulary. 157

9.    DMN Style. 159

Naming. 159
  • Removing the Spaces. 159
  • Name Should Suggest the Type. 160
Decision Table Style. 161
  • Rules-as-Rows. 161
  • Input Entry Cell Merging. 162
  • Hit Policy. 162
  • Compound Output 162
  • Maximum Contraction of Rules. 163
  • Input Expressions. 164
  • Input and Output Values. 165
  • Input Entries. 165
  • Output Entries. 167
  • Table Completeness and Null 167
  • Null in Conditional Decisions. 167
  • Action Subtables. 170

10.  DMN Method. 173

Decision Modeling Methodologies. 173
  • “Decision Table Methodology”. 173
  • TDM – STEP Methodology. 173
  • FICO – Decision Requirements Analysis. 175
  • Similarities and Differences. 176
Synthesis and Departure. 176
  • Top-Down Decomposition. 178
  • Decision Logic vs Process Logic. 179
Outline of the DMN Method. 180

11.  Decision Logic Patterns. 183

Arithmetic Formula Patterns. 183
  • Unconditional Computation. 183
  • Reusable Literal Expression – BKM Invocation. 185
  • Literal Function Invocation. 185
  • Conditional Computation. 187
Classification Patterns. 187
  • All-or-Nothing Pattern. 187
  • Category-Score Pattern. 191
  • Category with Reasons Pattern. 191
Iteration Patterns. 192
  • Iteration without for..return. 194
Table Lookup and Query Patterns. 196
  • Table Lookup Pattern – Filter Expression. 197
  • Table Lookup Pattern – Decision Table. 198
  • Table Join Pattern. 199
  • Adding, Removing, Renaming, or Rearranging Table Columns. 202
Sorting and Optimization Patterns. 202
  • Min and Max. 202
  • Meets a Threshold. 203
  • Sort Function. 203
  • Make a Burger Challenge. 205
Action Subtable Patterns. 207
Validation Patterns. 208
  • Invalid Data. 208
  • Validation Rules. 208
  • Error List Pattern. 209

12.  Top-Down DRD Decomposition. 211

Decomposition Strategy. 211
Lending Example Revisited. 213
  • First Order Decomposition. 214
  • Role of BPMN in Decision Modeling. 218
  • Priority of Supporting Decisions. 219
  • Full Decomposition. 222
  • Prequalification. 223
  • Qualification. 227
Summary of the Decomposition. 229

13.  Data Modeling and Business Glossary. 233

Data Modeling for DMN.. 233
  • Logical Data Model 233
  • DMN Data Models. 234
  • XSD Data Models. 236
Business Glossary. 237
  • DMN Elements Supporting a Glossary and Data Model 239

14.  Example: Auto Insurance Premium.. 241

UServ Product Derby. 241
  • Rules. 242
  • Fact Model 245
  • Decision Process. 247
  • First-Order Decomposition. 247
  • Fact Model 248
  • EligibilityScore without Iteration. 250
  • Premium without Iteration. 253
  • Adding Iteration. 256
Level 2 Solution. 261

15.  Example: Mortgage Recommender. 265

  • Decision Process. 265
  • DRD Decomposition. 266
  • Fact Model 267
  • LoanTypes. 269
  • Bankrates. 270
  • MatchingProducts. 271
  • FinancialMetrics. 271
Customer Request and Decision Response. 273

16.  Decision Analysis and Testing. 277

  • Completeness. 277
  • Consistency. 279
  • Decision Analysis. 280
  • Analytics: Completing the Circle. 283

17.  The Road Ahead. 285

  • Choosing a DMN Tool. 286
  • Improving the Standard. 287
Appendix A.  A Quick BPMN Tutorial. 293
Appendix B.  Real-World Example: Dodd-Frank Regulatory Compliance. 295
  • Comprehensive Capital Adequacy Review.. 296
  • Liquidity Coverage Ratio. 296
  • Example: HQLA Level 2B Classification. 297
Index. 299
About the Author. 305
Appendix B Author. 305